This is an advertisement in the form of 32-page newsletter, put online by Ryota Iijima in 2005.
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THE BASIC BOOKS

by

C. K. OGDEN
Director of the Orthological Institute

Supplement to The Basic News, January, 1938

BASIC

THE ORTHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
10 KING'S PARADE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND

Price SIXPENCE, post free


REPRESENTATIVES, 1938

Austria
Frau Pauline L. Haussmann,
Heizingergasse 1,
Wien XVIII.

Burma
Ma Than É,
19 Cushing Compound,
Rangoon.

Canada
H. Walpole,
Queen's University,
Kingston, Ontario,

China
Professor R. D. Jameson,
The Orthological Institute of China,
5 Sui An Po Hutung.
Peiping.

Cochinchina
Dang Cong Thang,
288, rue Lagrandière,
Saigon.

Czechoslovakia
J. V. Frýdl,
Spálená ul. 31,
Praha II.

Danubian Centre
Dr. Otakar Vocadlo,
Komenský University,
Bratislava.

Denmark
Mrs. Kamma Taylor,
Lille Strandvej 18A.
Hellerup, Copenhagen.

Egypt
E. H. Paxton,
Faculty of Arts,
Egyptian University.
Cairo.

France
Mlle. Camille Nony,
10, rue Louis Besquel,
Vincennes, Paris.

Germany Dr. Hans Horst,
29, Böklinstrasse,
Mannheim.

Holland
The Mundaneum Institute,
267, Obrechtstraat,
The Hague.

Hungary
Julius Halász,
Györi ut 12, Budapest I.

Iceland
Snaebjörn Jónsson,
4, Austurstraeti,
Reykjavik.

India
Adolph Myers,
"The Times of India,"
Bombay.

Japan
T. Takata,
Toyama Kotogakko,
Toyama-Shigai,
Toyama-Ken.

Latvia
Ernest Rolavs,
Rupniecibas ielã 3b,
Riga.

Malaya
Dr. V. Purcell,
Protector of Chinese,
Ipoh, Perak.

New South Wales
Mrs. Elsa M. Gormley,
171, Macquarie Street,
Sydney.

Norway
Oscar Humerfelt,
Jensmessveien 10,
Vestre Holmen, Oslo.

Paraguay
C. A. Lewis,
Avda. Colombia esq. Curupayty.
Asunción.

Poland
Professor B. W. A. Massey,
The Univcrsity, Poznań.

Singapore
F. Thomas,
St. Andrew's School.

South Australia
Professor Sir C. Stanton Hicks,
The University,
Adelaide.

Sweden
Dr. Gösta Langenfelt,
7. Domherrevägen,
Höglandstorget.

Switzerland
F. Gschwind,
l 7, Stapferstrasse,
Zurich, 6.

Turkey
W. Vernon,
16, Tozbaga Sokak, No.4,
Yeni Carsi,
Beyoglu, Istanbul.

U.S.S.R.
lvy Litvinoff,
Narkomindel, Moscow.

Yugoslavia
I. F. Lupis-Vukić,
ulica Matije Gubca 44,
Split.


TO THE READER

The purpose of these pages is to give a fuller account of the most
important books in, or about, Basic English than is possible in the
short lists printed in a folder or at the ends of the books themselves.

In addition to the 100 here outlined or listed, covering more
than 3,000,000 words in Basic, there are now at least 50 books in
other languages—Chinese, Japanese, Russian, Czech, Latvian,
Swedish, Danish, German, French, etc.—through which those
with no knowledge of English are able to get control of the system
or to make use of it in different ways.

In the past eight years, at least 1,000 accounts of Basic have been
printed in the newspapers of all countries, and a selection from them
will be made later, as a way of marking the 10th year of the
existence of Basic English (first produced in 1930) and as a guide to
those who may be writing for that wider public which gets its first
news of international developments from headlines.

It will be seen that side by side with the Basic Library, in which
details are given of the theory and structure of the system, with
examples of its use in all fields, a number of step-by-step School
Books at low prices are now ready, and a further wide range of these
is now in the making. At the same time, we are going forward with
a new Outline of the Sciences, through which the higher levels of
thought and discovery may be made part of any school programme.
So, by 1940, with the help of the General Dictionary (25,000 words),
the Science Dictionary (20,000 words), and a new Dictionary of
Current English
(5,000 words commonly used in talking) , the Basic
learner will not only have a key to the language of Shakespeare,
Darwin, and the Radio—but a Library of 5,000,000 words in a part
of that language, complete in itself for international purposes.

* Readers who are unable to send money even in small amounts
may make payments in Picture Stamps from any country.

3


BASIC ENGLISH

OPERATIONS
etc.
THINGSQUALITIES
100400 General200 Pictrured100 General50 Opposite
COME
GET
GIVE
GO
KEEP
LET
MAKE
PUT
SEEM
TAKE
BE
DO
HAVE
SAY
SEE
SEND
MAY
WILL
ABOUT
ACROSS
AFTER
AGAINST
AMONG
AT
BEFORE
BETWEEN
BY
DOWN
FROM
IN
OFF
ON
OVER
THROUGH
TO
UNDER
UP
WITH
AS
FOR
OF
TILL
THAN
A
THE
ALL
ANY
EVERY
LITTLE
MUCH
NO
OTHER
SOME
SUCH
THAT
THIS
I
HE
YOU
WHO
AND
BECAUSE
BUT
OR
IF
THOUGH
WHILE
HOW
WHEN
WHERE
WHY
AGAIN
EVER
FAR
FORWARD
HERE
NEAR
NOW
OUT
STILL
THEN
THERE
TOGETHER
WELL
ALMOST
ENOUGH
EVEN
NOT
ONLY
QUITE
SO
VERY
TOMORROW
YESTERDAY
NORTH
SOUTH
EAST
WEST
PLEASE
YES
ACCOUNT
ACT
ADDITION
ADJUSTMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
AGREEMENT
AIR
AMOUNT
AMUSEMENT
ANIMAL
ANSWER
APPARATUS
APPROVAL
ARGUMENT
ART
ATTACK
ATTEMPT
ATTENTION
ATTRACTION
AUTHORITY
BACK
BALANCE
BASE
BEHAVIOUR
BELIEF
BIRTH
BIT
BITE
BLOOD
BLOW
BODY
BRASS
BREAD
BREATH
BROTHER
BUILDING
BURN
BURST
BUSINESS
BUTTER
CANVAS
CARE
CAUSE
CHALK
CHANCE
CHANGE
CLOTH
COAL
COLOUR
COMfORT
COMMITTEE
COMPANY
COMPARISON
COMPETITION
CONDITION
CONNECTION
CONTROL
COOK
COPPER
COPY
CORK
COTTON
COUGH
COUNTRY
COVER
CRACK
CREDIT
CRIME
CRUSH
CRY
CURRENT
CURVE
DAMAGE
DANGER
DAUGHTER
DAY
DEATH
DEBT
DECISION
DEGREE
DESIGN
DESIRE
DESTRUCTION
DETAIL
DEVELOPMENT
DIGESTION
DIRECTION
DISCOVERY
DISCUSSION
DISEASE
DISGUST
DISTANCE
DISTRIBUTION
DIVISION
DOUBT
DRINK
DRIVING
DUST
EARTH
EDGE
EDUCATION
EFFECT
END
ERROR
EVENT
EXAMPLE
EXCHANGE
EXISTENCE
EXPANSION
EXPERIENCE
EXPERT
FACT
FALL
FAMILY
FATHER
FEAR
FEELING
FICTION
FIELD
FIGHT
FIRE
FLAME
FLIGHT
FLOWER
FOLD
FOOD
FORCE
FORM
FRIEND
FRONT
FRUIT
GLASS
GOLD
GOVERNMENT
GRAIN
GRASS
GRIP
GROUP
GROWTH
GUIDE
HARBOUR
HARMONY
HATE
HEARING
HEAT
HELP
HISTORY
HOLE
HOPE
HOUR
HUMOUR
ICE
IDEA
IMPULSE
INCREASE
INDUSTRY
INK
INSECT
INSTRUMENT
INSURANCE
INTEREST
INVENTION
IRON
JELLY
JOIN
JOURNEY
JUDGE
JUMP
KICK
KISS
KNOWLEDGE
LAND
LANGUAGE
LAUGH
LAW
LEAD
LEARNING
LEATHER
LETTER
LEVEL
LIFT
LIGHT
LIMIT
LINEN
LIQUID
LIST
LOOK
LOSS
LOVE
MACHINE
MAN
MANAGER
MARK
MARKET
MASS
MEAL
MEASURE
MEAT
MEETING
MEMORY
METAL
MIDDLE
MILK
MIND
MINE
MINUTE
MIST
MONEY
MONTH
MORNING
MOTHER
MOTION
MOUNTAIN
MOVE
MUSIC
NAME
NATION
NEED
NEWS
NIGHT
NOISE
NOTE
NUMBER
OBSERVATION
OFFER
OIL
OPERATION
OPINION
ORDER
ORGANIZATION
ORNAMENT
OWNER
PAGE
PAIN
PAINT
PAPER
PART
PASTE
PAYMENT
PEACE
PERSON
PLACE
PLANT
PLAY
PLEASURE
POINT
POISON
POLISH
PORTER
POSITION
POWDER
POWER
PRICE
PRINT
PROCESS
PRODUCE
PROFIT
PROPERTY
PROSE
PROTEST
PULL
PUNISHMENT
PURPOSE
PUSH
QUALITY
QUESTION
RAIN
RANGE
RATE
RAY
REACTION
READING
REASON
RECORD
REGRET
RELATION
RELIGION
REPRESENTATIVE
REQUEST
RESPECT
REST
REWARD
RHYTHM
RICE
RIVER
ROAD
ROLL
ROOM
RUB
RULE
RUN
SALT
SAND
SCALE
SCIENCE
SEA
SEAT
SECRETARY
SELECTION
SELF
SENSE
SERVANT
SEX
SHADE
SHAKE
SHAME
SHOCK
SIDE
SIGN
SILK
SILVER
SISTER
SIZE
SKY
SLEEP
SLIP
SLOPE
SMASH
SMELL
SMILE
SMOKE
SNEEZE
SNOW
SOAP
SOCIETY
SON
SONG
SORT
SOUND
SOUP
SPACE
STAGE
START
STATEMENT
STEAM
STEEL
STEP
STITCH
STONE
STOP
STORY
STRETCH
STRUCTURE
SUBSTANCE
SUGAR
SUGGESTION
SUMMER
SUPPORT
SURPRISE
SWIM
SYSTEM
TALK
TASTE
TAX
TEACHING
TENDENCY
TEST
THEORY
THING
THOUGHT
THUNDER
TIME
TIN
TOP
TOUCH
TRADE
TRANSPORT
TRICK
TROUBLE
TURN
TWIST
UNIT
USE
VALUE
VERSE
VESSEL
VIEW
VOICE
WALK
WAR
WASH
WASTE
WATER
WAVE
WAX
WAY
WEATHER
WEEK
WEIGHT
WIND
WINE
WINTER
WOMAN
WOOD
WOOL
WORD
WORK
WOUND
WRITING
YEAR
ANGLE
ANT
APPLE
ARCH
ARM
ARMY
BABY
BAG
BALL
BAND
BASIN
BASKET
BATH
BED
BEE
BELL
BERRY
BIRD
BLADE
BOARD
BOAT
BONE
BOOK
BOOT
BOTTLE
BOX
BOY
BRAIN
BRAKE
BRANCH
BRICK
BRIDGE
BRUSH
BUCKET
BULB
BUTTON
CAKE
CAMERA
CARD
CART
CARRIAGE
CAT
CHAIN
CHEESE
CHEST
CHIN
CHURCH
CIRCLE
CLOCK
CLOUD
COAT
COLLAR
COMB
CORD
COW
CUP
CURTAIN
CUSHION
DOG
DOOR
DRAIN
DRAWER
DRESS
DROP
EAR
EGG
ENGINE
EYE
FACE
FARM
FEATHER
FINGER
FISH
FLAG
FLOOR
FLY
FOOT
FORK
FOWL
FRAME
GARDEN
GIRL
GLOVE
GOAT
GUN
HAIR
HAMMER
HAND
HAT
HEAD
HEART
HOOK
HORN
HORSE
HOSPITAL
HOUSE
ISLAND
JEWEL
KETTLE
KEY
KNEE
KNIFE
KNOT
LEAF
LEG
LIBRARY
LINE
LIP
LOCK
MAP
MATCH
MONKEY
MOON
MOUTH
MUSCLE
NAIL
NECK
NEEDLE
NERVE
NET
NOSE
NUT
OFFICE
ORANGE
OVEN
PARCEL
PEN
PENCIL
PICTURE
PIG
PIN
PIPE
PLANE
PLATE
PLOUGH
POCKET
POT
POTATO
PRISON
PUMP
RAIL
RAT
RECEIPT
RING
ROD
ROOF
ROOT
SAIL
SCHOOL
SCISSORS
SCREW
SEED
SHEEP
SHELF
SHIP
SHIRT
SHOE
SKIN
SKIRT
SNAKE
SOCK
SPADE
SPONGE
SPOON
SPRING
SQUARE
STAMP
STAR
STATION
STEM
STICK
STOCKING
STOMACH
STORE
STREET
SUN
TABLE
TAIL
THREAD
THROAT
THUMB
TICKET
TOE
TONGUE
TOOTH
TOWN
TRAIN
TRAY
TREE
TROUSERS
UMBRELLA
WALL
WATCH
WHEEL
WHIP
WHISTLE
WINDOW
WING
WIRE
WORM
ABLE
ACID
ANGRY
AUTOMATIC
BEAUTIFUL
BLACK
BOILING
BRIGHT
BROKEN
BROWN
CHEAP
CHEMICAL
CHIEF
CLEAN
CLEAR
COMMON
COMPLEX
CONSCIOUS
CUT
DEEP
DEPENDENT
EARLY
ELASTIC
ELECTRIC
EQUAL
FAT
FERTILE
FIRST
FIXED
FLAT
FREE
FREQUENT
FULL
GENERAL
GOOD
GREAT
GREY
HANGING
HAPPY
HARD
HEALTHY
HIGH
HOLLOW
IMPORTANT
KIND
LIKE
LIVING
LONG
MALE
MARRIED
MATERIAL
MEDICAL
MILITARY
NATURAL
NECESSARY
NEW
NORMAL
OPEN
PARALLEL
PAST
PHYSICAL
POLITICAL
POOR
POSSIBLE
PRESENT
PRIVATE
PROBABLE
QUICK
QUIET
READY
RED
REGULAR
RESPONSIBLE
RIGHT
ROUND
SAME
SECOND
SEPARATE
SERIOUS
SHARP
SMOOTH
STICKY
STIFF
STRAIGHT
STRONG
SUDDEN
SWEET
TALL
THICK
TIGHT
TIRED
TRUE
VIOLENT
WAITING
WARM
WET
WIDE
WISE
YELLOW
YOUNG
AWAKE
BAD
BENT
BITTER
BLUE
CERTAIN
COLD
COMPLETE
CRUEL
DARK
DEAD
DEAR
DELICATE
DIFFERENT
DIRTY
DRY
FALSE
FEEBLE
FEMALE
FOOLISH
FUTURE
GREEN
ILL
LAST
LATE
LEFT
LOOSE
LOUD
LOW
MIXED
NARROW
OLD
OPPOSITE
PUBLIC
ROUGH
SAD
SAFE
SECRET
SHORT
SHUT
SIMPLE
SLOW
SMALL
SOFT
SOLID
SPECIAL
STRANGE
THIN
WHITE
WRONG

RULES

ADDITION OF 'S' TO THINGS WHEN
THERE IS
MORE THAN ONE

ENDINGS
IN 'ER,' 'ING,' 'ED' FROM 300 NAMES
OF THINGS

'LY' FORMS
FROM
QUALITIES

DEGREE
WITH
'MORE' AND 'MOST'

QUESTlONS
BY CHANGE OF
ORDER,
AND 'DO.'

FORM CHANGES IN
NAMES OF ACTS
AND 'THAT,' 'THIS,'
'I,' 'HE,' 'YOU,'
'WHO', AS IN
NORMAL ENGLISH

MEASURES
NUMEERS
DAYS, MONTHS
AND THE
INTERNATIONAL
WORDS
IN ENGLISH
FORM

THE
ORTHOLOGICAL
INSTITUTE
10
KING'S PARADE
CAMBRIDGE
ENGLAND.

All Rights Reserved. Copyright in U.S.A.


THE BASIC BOOKS

BASIC ENGLISH, now in its seventh printing, is a general account of
the system for readers with a knowledge of English. Part I is not
in Basic, because for those who have no English it will be put into
other languages, and for learners the same field is covered in The
ABC of Basic English
and Basic Step by Step. It gives an idea of the
value of Basic as an international language, with a short outline of
the structure and the rules. Then comes a fuller statement of the rules
and the reasons for them; and, after that, a discussion of the learning
and teaching of Basic for all purposes. Part II is a Short Guide to
Basic, in Basic—from a somewhat different angle and as an example
of the language. So this is the best book for the general reader who
is looking for further details after hearing about Basic from a friend or
reading one of those headlines in the newspapers about a new way of
putting an end to Babel.

THE BASIC WORDS, now in its fourth printing, is a guide to the
behaviour of the 850, listing, in addition, the complex words
(formed by putting Basic words together) and the hundred inter-
nationals which may be used with the system. The root sense and
other senses are given in French and German, and the words which
may take the -er, -ing, -ed endings or un- are pointed out. The 250
special uses numbered in The ABC are listed with one star, together
with 250 which have two stars, as being less important, or not
for learners. Its 'phonetic' sound (using the system of Professor
Daniel Jones) is printed after every word.

THE ABC OF BASIC ENGLISH, now in its sixth printing, is a guide,
in Basic, to all the chief points of Basic English, in three stages:
A, the Basic words (which take only fifteen minutes on the
records) and their order; B, expansions of form and sense; and C,
special uses which arc not regular. The book is being put into other
languages for the use of those whose natural language is not English.
But after giving a week to A, a week to B, and an hour to C,
the learner will have enough knowledge to go through it again in
Basic; and this is probably the best way, because, in learning
Basic, the end is at all times to be kept in view. There is an account
of the Basic Word Wheel for making clear the details of structure
and word-order, an invention of the greatest value in teaching.
The ABC, with the help of four records made by Professor Lloyd
James of the Basic words and sounds, The Basic Words, Basic Step by
Step
, and a selection of general reading material, gives any teacher
with some knowledge of English everything necessary for his purpose.

5


BASIC STEP BY STEP, now in its third printing, gives a detailed
account in Basic of the stages by which Basic English, as outlined
in The ABC, may be made part of the teaching system of any
country. The 850 words are grouped in thirty divisions of twenty-
five, with a small number of structure words in every group. Any-
thing which would not be clear to the learner from the first simple
sense of the word has been listed; and the notes are based on
suggestions from teachers of experience in all countries. Though
not designed for regular school use in its present form, it is the best
guide for teachers and learners who are starting out to get a good
working knowledge of the system. On it school books in other
languages are being based, and with the help of more pictures like
the twenty-two given as examples, the senses of the different words
and of their expansions may be made clear without waste of time.

THE BASIC DICTIONARY, now in its fourth printing, is a selection
of about 7,500 of the most necessary words in the English language
with suggestions for Basic parallels. It makes clear how the 850
words do their work, and is chiefly for those who have a knowledge
of English in its full form but have not had enough experience of
Basic to put the words together quickly for themselves. For others,
its place will be taken in 1938 by The Simple English Dictionary
giving in Basic the senses of more than 25,000 words.

BASIC BY EXAMPLES, now in its second printing, gives all the chief
uses of the 850 words in Basic statements, so that learners who have
been working with Basic Step by Step and The Basic Words may
have a way of testing their knowledge and getting a better control
of the system, It will be a help to those whose natural language is
not English and who are at a loss how to put the words into such
statements as would be of use in normal talking and writing. The
sense of the word is made clear, as far as possible, bv the example
itself. All root senses, special senses, and common expansions arc
covered; the special uses, which are in The ABC and The Basic
Words
, are not put in again here.

BASIC FOR SCIENCE is a discussion of the need for an international
language in science and of the use of Basic in this connection.
It gives an account of the way in which, with the addition of 100
general science words, and 50 for special fields, Basic will take
the expert to a level where science itself is international. The
examples are taken from papers on Chemistry, Physics, Biology, and
other sciences. The second printing will be ready in October or
November, 1938.

6


BASIC FOR ECONOMICS, by Miss L. W. Lockhart, is based on a
selection from the writings of Malthus, Marshall, Cannan, Lavington,
and Stamp, made by Professor Sargant Florence with a view to
covering as wide a range as possible, The 50 special words needed
for experts writing in this field of science have been printed at the
front.

BASIC FOR GEOLOGY, by P. M. Rossiter, gives five examples of
expert writing, as different from one another as possible, put into
Basic with the special Geology list of 50 words in addition to the
100 used for General Science. Out of 164 pages, more than 40 are
given to the language of Geology and the selection of words for
Basic purposes; so this is one of the best books for those who are
attempting to make use of the system in other branches of science,
at the international level.

BASIC FOR BUSINESS, by Mr. S. L. Salzedo, makes clear how
the unnecessarily complex forms of normal business language may
be put into straightforward and simple English. No less than 60
examples of letters and agreements are given, with the 50 special
words needed for all forms of trading; and at the end is a list of
common business words with their Basic parallels.

A BASIC ASTRONOMY, by Mr. S. I. Salzedo, is a simple account of
the stars, using only the 850 Basic words and a small list of special
words whose sense is made clear in notes. It is an addition to the
Basic Library of Science for all those who are interested in increasing
their knowledge of the great stage on which the minds and instru-
ments of men are making their discoveries, even if they themselves
have no desire to come before the footlights.

THE SOUNDS AND FORMS OF BASIC ENGLISH, by Mr. J.
Rantz, is a Basic account of those parts of the science of phonetics
which are of use for Basic purposes. It is not a detailed picture for
experts, but is full of interesting suggestions for helping all those
talking what is designed as an international language to make the same
noises as far as possible in the same way, and to give their Basic a
straightforward English sound. The system of the International
Phonetics Association has been used in its simplest form; and in
schools where phonetics is a part of language training, A Basic
Phonetic Reader
, by Professor Lloyd James, may be used with this
book.

7


FROM PICTURES TO LETTERS, by Mrs. Ellen Walpole, is a
detailed account in Basic, for school use, of every step necessary in
the first stages of letter-making and simple reading. For the first
year the young learners, who come to school when they are three
years old, are trained in simple motions and operations, so that their
muscles may be ready for the work of the second year, when a serious
start is made at reading and writing. By the end of the second year,
most of them will have got through the book and be reading and
writing Basic without trouble. Though this system of teaching the
letters by pictures is a new one, it is clearly based on common sense,
and is the outcome of long experience. From the Basic point of
view the book is a good example of the value in education of the
general idea on which the system is based.

BASIC BY ISOTYPE, by Dr. Otto Neurath, is an example of the
way in which pictures may be made of use for learning the sense of
words and statements. Isotype is an international picture language
(see International Picture Language) and the signs are clear and
simple, so that the most important points are seen straight away and
are kept in the memory. About 500 of the 850, together with a
great number of complex words, are here covered. Two colours have
been used where necessary, and the pictures are without doubt the
best which have ever been produced for language purposes.

EVERYDAY BASIC (which takes the place of "The Basic Traveller")
by Miss L. W. Lockhart, is a guide to the right use of Basic for
a number of different purposes—everyday talk in hotels, trains,
banks, and restaurants; stories, political material, Radio news,
and so on. The book may be used with profit, in connection with
Basic Step by Step, at any stage when straightforward examples
are needed for talking, writing, and reading.

INTERNATIONAL TALKS, by Mr. Wickham Steed, Editor of The
Times
till 1922, were produced by him as an example of the way in
which, by the use of straightforward English free from the tricks of
newspaper writers, international questions might be made clear to
the general reader. They are here printed side by side with their
Basic parallels, for the use of those who have a working know-
ledge of English. By keeping the Basic covered over till an
attempt has been made to put the opposite page, line by line, into the
850 words, and then making a comparison, the learner will get answers
to the chief questions by which all who are making a start with Basic
are naturally troubled, without any time being wasted on looking up
details in The Basic Dictionary.

8

KEÄWE'S BOTTLE is R. L. Stevenson's story "The Bottle Imp,"
from An Island Night's Entertainment, put into Basic by Miss L. W.
Lockhart. For general reading or for school use this is one of the
best books on which to make a start, after the senses of the 850 words
have been made clear to the learner. In this story, Stevenson had
in mind the needs of the Samoans with whom he was living, and he
himself made use of very simple language which was sometimes
surprisingly near to Basic.

WISE WORDS OF AN EARLY AMERICAN is a selection put
into Basic from the Works of Benjamin Franklin, first printed in
1796. Franklin's work on the physical and medical sciences—on
the causes of thunder and of smoking fires, on the errors of the old
electric theories, and on inventions in connection with sailing-ships
and eye-glasses—is important for the history of their development.
But for more than fifty years after his death, his writings were
valued as much for their quiet humour as for their substance. This
book gives some idea of how wide his knowledge was, and how wise
his observations on the organization of society, education, and the
right ways of taking care of the body. The material goes well into
Basic and, it is hoped, without any marked loss of Franklin's thought.

THE GOLD INSECT is Edgar Allen Poe's "The Gold Bug" put
into Basic English by Mr. A. P. Rossiter, Lecturer in English at
Durham University. It is a straightforward and gripping story,
and a landmark in the history of this sort of fiction. The interest,
as in all good discovery stories, comes from changes of rhythm—
now made stronger by a suggestion of waiting, now jumping
forward with a quick surprising turn. Poe's language was frequently
stiff and complex; so that when put into Basic the story is as
good as ever, but made clearer for the young reader in all countries.

THE THREE SIGNS, and other American Stories, is a book of three
stories by the three most important American writers in the fifty
years before the Civil War. "The Three Signs," by Nathanie]
Hawthorne and "The Glasses," by Edgar Allen Poe were put into
Basic by Mr. J. Rantz, and Washington lrving's "The Shade of the
Dead Lover" by Miss K. Newmark. Though they are very different
from one another, all three have this in common—that in them
everyday things seem to take on new and strange qualities; and it is
interesting to see how far it is possible to get this effect, which is
frequently dependent on the feeling-value of words, in the common-
sense language of Basic.

9


JULIUS CAESAR is taken from Plutarch's histories of Julius
Caesar and Brutus in Lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans, by
Sir Thomas North. It has been put into Basic by Mr. A. P. Rossiter,
and only those parts of North's Plutarch which were used by
Shakespeare in his play have been covered. The form of North's
prose (taken from Tudor Translations (XI and XII) printed under
the direction of W. E. Henley in 1896) has been changed as little as
possible. This account of the turning-point in the histories of some
of the greatest men in Rome, starting at a stage when the growth
of Caesar's power first became a danger to Pompey, and moving
slowly forward till the Roman Empire was safely in the hands of
Augustus, is an important addition to the Basic school library.

GULLIVER IN LILLIPUT, by Jonathan Swift, has been put into
Basic by Mr. C. Hughes Hartmann. It would not be surprising if the
effect of turning such well-balanced and polished prose into simpler
language had been to take away almost all its special qualities; but
the hand of Swift may still be clearly seen in the Basic story.
Though he was frequently laughing at the government of his day,
much amusement may be got from his account of Gulliver's journeys
by taking it at its face value. If he was living today, a writer with such
a sharp eye for the humour of the international position might well
have been a supporter of Basic.

BLACK BEAUTY, by Anna Sewell, still frequently comes out at
the top of the list in competition with other books which are dear
to the hearts of the young. Its simple story makes good reading
for schools, and will give pleasure to animal-lovers in all countries.
Though much of his work is now being done by machines, the needs
and troubles of the horse are the same today as in 1877, and this is a
book which has made millions less cruel to their four-legged friends.
So, in the Basic form given to it by Miss Winifred Holl (with certain
details which are no longer of interest cut out), its wide distribution
may be a help to a good cause.

STORIES FOR THE YOUNG, by Leo Tolstoi, put into Basic by
Mr. J. Rantz, is a book for general reading, and will be of special use
in schools. When writing these stories—"After Long Years,"
"A Prisoner in the Caucasus," and "Getting a Bear"— Tolstoi
had in mind the education of the sons and daughters of the workers
on his land; but their interest is not limited to any time or place,
and it is hoped that in this international form they will give pleasure
to the boys and girls of all countries.

10


THE TWO FRIENDS, by Ivan Tourgenieff (Basic by Mr. Noel
Evans), is another attempt to put the work of one of the great
Russian writers before an international public. It is a simple country
story, full of quiet humour. Anyone who has the idea of learning the
language of Peter the Great and Lenin, will get great help not only
from the experiences of these friends but from The Basis and
Essantials of Russian
and the Russian form of Basic Step by Step
printed in the U.S.S.R.

STORIES FROM FRANCE, put into Basic from the French of
Charles Perrault by Mr. H. Walpole, is another addition to the
group of Basic readers for the young on the same level as Stories
from Hans Andersen
, Robinson Crusoe, and Black Beauty. These
eight stories. " Cinderella," "Tom Thumb," "Bluebeard," and
the rest were loved by boys and girls even before the good Perrault
gave them their place in the sun in 1697. There is a touch of blood
here and there, but it is quickly washed out when the wrongdoer
gets what is so clearly coming to him.

JAPANESE STORIES, from Lafcadio Hearn, put into Basic by
Mr. T. Takata, was the first Basic book by anyone whose natural
language is not English, and the full English form is printed opposite
for comparison. Mr. Takata (a teacher of English in Japan) had in
mind the needs of Japanese boys and girls; but the stories will make
good reading material in all countries, not only in schools but for
the general public. However strange they may seem to European
minds, they give some idea of the feeling and thought of old Japan.
in which the Japan of today has its roots.

ROBINSON CRUSOE, put into Basic by Mr. T. Takata, is a story
which has kept the attention of the young for two hundred years.
Defoe's idea of a man slowly learning to make and do everything
for himself has a special value in education, and this Basic selection
gives boys and girls of all countries a chance of making their
discoveries in the footsteps of Man Friday. For this reason care has
been taken to keep to the simple uses and structures which give
least trouble in early reading.

LAMB'S STORIES FROM SHAKESPEARE, put into Basic by
Mr. T. Takata, will give young readers whose mother tongue is not
English a chance to get a knowledge of what Shakespeare was
writing about at a stage when it would be hard for them to get the
sense of his plays. "Macbeth," "The Trader of Venice," "Hamlet,"
and "A Winter's Story" are outlines in even simpler language
than that of Charles Lamb.

11


STORIES FROM CHINA, by T. K. Ch'u, is a selection from old
story-books, the writer's memory of old stories handed down by
word of mouth, and present-day stories such as that about Nüwa
and the Sky, by Lu Hsün, whose death a short time back was a great
loss to Chinese letters. It will here be seen why the Chinese have so
little fear of death, how strong was the feeling that it is wrong for a
woman to get married a second time, and what sort of reactions the
old ways and beliefs are now producing. In fact, we may get from
these pages as much knowledge of Chinese ideas and theories of
living as from a history-book—if not more.

THE CHEMICAL HISTORY OF A CANDLE, by Michael Faraday, put
into Basic by Phyllis Rossiter, is an example of the language at
work on the simplest level of international science—using the 100
genera1 science words, and the 50 for Chemistry and Physics. These
six talks given by Faraday at the Royal Institution in 1860-1 are
still a good base for all early school work in Chemistry, and at the
same time they give a clear idea of the reasoning processes responsible
for the growth of our knowledge. Faraday lets his young hearers
see how one question comes out of another; and the very heart of
his teaching is that wise doubt which is the start, if not the end, of all
true science.

THE OUTLOOK OF SCIENCE is one of two books which have been
made from a selection of papers by Professor J. B. S. Haldane and
put into Basic by Mr. W. Empson. We are here given the latest
views on how living beings first came into existence, man as a sea
animal, the effects of size, the value of scales, the future of man,
and how the earth will come to an end. This is not a book for experts
but for the general reader, so only the 850 Basic words have been used,
without the help of the special science lists.

SCIENCE AND WELL-BEING is a further selection of papers by
Professor J. B. S. Haldane, put into Basic by Mr. W. Empson.
Like The Outlook of Science it gives us the views of a worker on
biology, a man of very fertile ideas and wide knowledge, on important
questions of general public interest, such as the need for Doubt,
what comes after Death, and the viewpoint of History.

INTERNATIONAL PICTURE LANGUAGE, by Dr. Otto Neurath,
is a first general outline (in Basic) of an international system of
education by pictures ('Isotype'). The system is now ready for
use in all fields; and the material, here taken from the point of view
of teaching and advertisement, is in harmony with the selection of
pictures given in the same writer's Basic by Isotype.

12


THE MENO OF PLATO, put into Basic by J. Rantz, is an attempt to
give the reader something into which he may get his teeth more
deeply than is possible with stories taken at their face value. The
more thought we have to give to these discussions of Knowledge and
its relations to society, the slower we go; but in the end, our
control of the language may be greatly increased by the fact that,
though the words were simple, their senses were frequently in
doubt—Plato's purpose being to keep our minds working all the
time.

THE ORGANIZATION OF PEACE, by Maxwell Garnett,
C.B.E., Sc.D. (Secretary of the League of Nations Union), is a
Basic history of the growth of the League of Nations, making clear
why an international organization became necessary, how the
League was formed, how it does its work, and what it has in view.
The book will be of interest to all those who see in Basic the hope
of a happier future in international relations, helping forward the
two greatest needs of our times—a working systcm of international
agreement for the common good of all nations and a common
language for the use of all.

THE BASIC ST. MARK is part of a complete Basic Bible on which
work was started in 1930. After three hundred vears it is sometimes
hard even for English readers to get the sense of the older forms of
language in the King James Bible; but for those whose mother tongue
is different in structure from European languages, it is even harder.
Other parts of the Bible now printed separately in Basic are St. John,
The Song of Songs, with Ecclesiastes, and Stories from the Bible.
This fifth great Bible undertaking (if Tyndale and the American
Translation of 1931 are listed with the King James Bible and the
Revised Version) will be the first with an international purpose. In
addition to the 50 special Bible words, the list of 100 for reading and
writing Verse has been used when needed, and it will be seen from
these examples, how with less than 15% of the old Bible language,
it is possible to keep the feeling and sense of the Hebrew and
the Greek.

THE BASIC ST. JOHN is the work of the Rev. Edwin Smith,
Editorial Superintendent of the British and Foreign Bible Society,
who was responsible in 1936 for a work in Basic on African Beliefss.
It is even simpler than St. Mark; and so that the story may not be
broken up unnaturally, the numbers of the verses have been printed
down the side of the page.

13


STORIES FROM THE BIBLE, now in its second printing, is a
selection from those parts of the Bible which are most used by
teachers in schools, so that the system here is tested over a wide
range. The stories are given in their complete form, making possible
a comparison with any other Bible verse by verse.

THE SONG OF SONGS, put into Basic by Ma Than É, Basic
representative in Burma, is different from the other parts of the
Basic Bible
now printed separately because the language questions
here faced are nearer to those covered by Mr. Rossiter's Statement
and Suggestion
. In addition to the Song of Solomon, the reader is
given not only Ecclesiastes but a Note on the verses by St. Peter
Damiani, "Quis est Hic?" (based on the Song of Songs), with a
Basic parallel to make the rhythm clearer.

DEATH IN HIGH SOCIETY, and Other Stories, is the work of
Miss Inez Holden, who is an expert in the art of interesting a wide
public. They are representative of an important part of the reading
material on which the value of Basic for general purposes has to be
tested. The story from which the book takes its name was given in
its Basic form on the short-wave Radio in 1935 without anyone being
conscious that it was not in an English of 20,000 words. At the front
of the book is a picture of Miss Holden by Augustus John.

THAT NIGHT is a Japanese play by Mr. Kyôson Tumura, put into
Basic by Mr. F. J. Daniels as test material for the making of a
Japanese-Basic English word-book. In the first part of the book
the Japanese is printed with a word-for-word Basic parallel; and in
the second the play is given again in smoother Basic. From these
two forms Japanese learners will be able to get the Basic sense of
every word of the Japanese, and to see what adjustments are
necessary if the effect is to seem natural in English.

CARL AND ANNA, by Leonhard Frank, put into Basic by Miss
L. W. Lockhart and now in its second printing, was the first
attempt to give the general public a complete work of fiction without
going outside the Basic word list. It is not for school use—if only
because the woman with whom Carl goes off into the snow is married
to another. But in time of war such exchanges do take place, and
the story had international approval as a book, a play, and a moving
picture, in the form given it by Mr. Cyrus Brooks—who made use
of more than 2,000 diffcrent words. Miss Lockhart has been able
to give us the same story using only 700 of the Basic 850. Those
who have time to make a comparison between the two will see how
well Basic is able to get the effects desired.

14


BRIGHTER BASIC, by C. K. Ogden, now in its second printing, is
chiefly for young persons of taste and feeling who are ready for
something a little less dry than the sort of material which is commonly
used in schools. Examples are given of Basic in everyday talks, in
story-writing, in verse, and in the art of the 'gagagram'—making
clear how wide the range of Basic is, and how it may be used with
equal effect for amusement or for any sort of discussion. Learners
whose natural language is not English will be able to see from its
pages if, and how, they are at a loss when they come across words
put together with less respect for the rules than in Basic books with
a more serious purpose.

STATEMENT AND SUGGESTION, by Mr. A. P. Rossiter (1ecturer
in English in the University of Durham and Late Instructor in
English in the Imperial Naval College, Etajima, Japan), gives the
arguments for using Basic as an apparatus for getting a new sense
of word values in the reading of verse. The discussion, which is all
in Basic, is designed not only for overseas teachers but for English
schools and universities, where, by using the 850 words and the Verse
List of 100 as a measuring-rod, the reader maybe made conscious of
the delicate shades of thought and feeling to which, in the hands of
writers of taste, language is a key.

BASIC RULES OF REASON, by Dr. I. A. Richards, gives a Basic
account of the process of reasoning, that is, putting our thoughts
into a system so that the connections between them become clear
and we see that if certain of them are taken as true certain others
have necessarily to be given the same belief. Basic, he says, is
better for this sort of discussion than a more complete language;
and by working on a selection of 26 key words, such as thought,
thing, fiction, fact, knowledge, and belief, and making clear how their
senses and uses may be grouped, he gives us a machine for the
better organization of our minds, which was part of the purpose
of the older books on Logic.

BASIC IN TEACHING: EAST AND WEST, by Dr. I. A. Richards,
a book for English teachers, not in Basic, makes clear some of the
important uses of Basic in teaching in the East and the West. It
gives an account of the present conditions of English teaching
in China and of the reasons for a wide use in China of some language
of the West. Turning to the parallel troubles of learners in England
and America, Dr. Richards puts forward strong arguments against
the current system of language teaching, and gives reasons for his
opinion that Basic may be used as a training in the right way of
reading English.

15


WORD ECONOMY, by Miss L. W. Lockhart, is an outline (not in
Basic) of the new developments in the science of language of which
Basic English was the outcome, and of the value of theory in the
making of a simple and elastic system for international use. It
gives a clear view of the different uses and values of words for
everyday purposes, and of the different ways in which word
organization is possible. For the general reader it is the best account
of expansions (covering operations and directions together with the
commoner sorts of change of sense), special uses, opposites, and
fictions. Other books by the same writer are Basic for Economics,
the Basic Carl and Anna, Keäwe's Bottle, and Arms and the Man.

BASIC ENGLISH VERSUS THE ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES,
by C. K. Ogden, is an answer to the arguments for Esperanto and
other languages put together from European roots, and to the
attacks made on Basic by the supporters of Esperanto. In addition,
there is a detailed account of the errors of Esperanto by Mr. Paul
D. Hugon, a discussion of Novial by Miss L. W. Lockhart, and some
notes on Occidental by Mr. Gerald A. Moore. Much time is still
being wasted on languages which will never be used by more than
one person, or are of interest only to a small group. Esperanto has
not even given us a structure on which a solid system might later
be based; and, in the opinion of experts, this book may well be its
death-blow.

DEBABELIZATION, by C. K. Ogden, is a general account of the
troubles caused by Babel, and of the Way Out—through Basic.
Only part of it is in Basic, because it is designed for doubters who
are still on the edge of this question; and it will be put into the
other languages of Babel for those who have no knowledge of
normal English. It is a record of current opinion on the question of
an international language, and of the development of Basic in the
last 10 years-as the answer.


All the books on pages 5-16 are priced at 2/6 a copy, and are part
of the Library named "Psyche Miniatures," produced in connection
with Psyche, an "Annual Review of General and Linguistic Psychol-
ogy," in which the work of the Orthological Institute is recorded year
by year. (Vol. XVII, 1937, 10/- post free. Vol. I-XVI, £20).
Other books in this Library which may be of interest to those
working on Basic theory are :

Opposition (9-/6).

Jeremy Bentham 1832-2032 (2/6).

16


OF GENERAL INTEREST

ARMS AND THE MAN, (Orthological Institute, 2/4 post free) by
Bernard Shaw, was put into Basic by Miss L. W. Lockhart; and
those who are able to make a comparison of the Basic with Mr.
Shaw's English, or with the play in its French, German, or Chinese
form, will get a good idea of the level at which Basic does its work.
There are millions to whom Mr. Shaw's language of more than
20,000 words is so hard that his ideas would never get across. Even
for acting purposes, the simpler language of Basic will have a wide
international public; and G.B.S. himself kindly made some
suggestions for small changes here and there. As a writer in The
Irish Review
(November 17th, 1936) said, the effect is surprising:
"I have read this transposed version of Shaw's brilliant comedy,
and am left wondering how the miracle of rendering a work by one
of the most individual of contemporary writers, through a medium
so restricted in its vocabulary, has been accomplished."

GENERAL HISTORY, in Outline and Story, by E. H. Carter and
C. K. Ogden (Nelson, 216) , gives a bird's-eye view of history in 100,000
words, with pictures from the earliest times to the present day.
Being in Basic, it may be used not only by the very young but even
by those with a very limited knowledge of English, The writers say:
"Our attempt has been to give some idea of the great canvas
of history, by lighting up, for example, a group, a man, a town ,
a ship, or a new invention—things not very important in themselves,
but representative of the special qualities of a country or a time. If in
this way we have made our readers interested enough to go further, and
I given them the sort of start which will make it possible for them to
get profit by doing so, we have done our part.

LIVlNG THlNGS, by J. W. N. Sullivan (Nelson, l/9), is a clear
account, in 30,000 words, of the structure of living material and the
process by which the complex forms which are on the earth today
have come into existence. How is the 'Theory of Evolution' now
supported? How are qualities handed down by plants and animals ?
Has man any control over the development and distribution of living
things? These questions and a number of others are answered for the
common reader in the light of our latest knowledge.

17


AFRICAN BELIEFS AND CHRISTIAN FAITH, by Edwin W. Smith
(The United Society of Christian Literature, 5/- post free) , is by a
writer whose earlier works, Ila Speakilng Peoples of Northern Rhodesia,
The Golden Stool, and Aggrey of Africa were based on a wide
experience of African conditions. The sense of a small number of
special words, such as clan, custom, slave, taboo, needed for African
purposes, is made clear in footnotes; and fourteen other words
(banana, buffalo, calabash, drum, eland, elephant, fig, hare, hoe,
hyena, lechwe, lizard, spider, wasp) come into the story. In 1935
Mr. Smith was President of the Royal Anthropological Society and
is an expert on African languages. He here puts Christian beliefs
before his African readers so clearly and naturally that, as The
Speaker has said (January 23rd, 1937), though keeping to the limits
of Basic," his excellent book seems thereby to win an added
charm."

THE BIBLE: WHAT IT IS AND WHAT IS IN IT (Society for
Promoting Christian Knowledge, 216) is a book of 150,000 words
in Basic., by the Rev. E. Evans, Vicar of Hellifield and Professor
T. H. Robinson of University College, Cardiff, designed for Christian
readers in Africa and Asia. There is a short special list, on page 381,
giving the sense of all words outside the 850.

TWENTIETH CENTURY HOUSES, by Raymond McGrath (Faber
and Faber, 21 -). See opposite page.

BASIC SCIENCE

In connection with the Basic Science Dictionary, which will be
ready in 1939, giving the senses of more than 20,000 words in Basic, a
number of additions to the Basic Science Library are now being
printed. In October, 1938, come Inventions Today, by Dr, H. Stafford
Hatfield, and The Growth of Science, by A. P. Rossiter. Science in
Society
, by J. G. Crowther and The Roots of Science, by J. A. Lauwerys,
are listed for November; and, covering the general field from a
different angle, European Science and The Bases of Physical Science, by
Dr. Hatfield, who will at the same time be responsible for and Magnetism, What Things are Made of, and four further outlines
of special branches of physical work.

Details of these and other science books now in the making will be
given in No. 7 of The Basic News.

18


TWENTIETH CENTURY HOUSES

by Raymond McGrath (Faber & Faber, 21/-)-

"As to novelty, I would draw attention to the fact (that might else pass
unnoticed) that the book is written throughout in Basic English, a convention
that, seemingly sacrificing so little, appears to promise so much,—instead of
making his choice from the 25,000 or so that I should have indolently had
recourse to in doing the job. The prose of the book is like the buildings it
profusely pictures—clear-cut, purposeful, economical, efficient; and those
concerned to bring themselves up to date in the matter of language, and not
merely in that of building, are counselled to study Mr. C. K. Ogden's illumin-
ating notes that constitute the appendix."
CLOUGH WILLIAMS-ELLIS, F.R.I.B.A.
"Here is a book which, if virtue were not its own reward, should most cer-
tainly be given two reviews-in parallel columns. For it is not only the best
book on its subject but it is written in Basic English and written beautifully."
The Spectator
"The Basic English in which the book is written is an interesting demon-
stration of the intelligibility and essential sufficiency of that progressive
device."
Punch
"A certain austerity marks this well-produced book. But for an unfamiliar
look in some familiar quotations, a reader might well not notice that it was
written in Basic English. . . . We are none the worse for knowing that almost
half-a-million of the words found in The Oxford Dictionary have no place in
this book."
The Listener
"It is not surprising that he has chosen the new medium of Basic English
with which to clothe his thoughts, for by this means his book, which adopts
an international standpoint with reference to design, is more readily accessible
to foreign students. By limiting his vocabulary to a few hundred words, which
have been specially chosen for their simplicity and with a wide collective
range of meaning, he has succeeded in saying everything he wants to say in a
pleasantly fluent and unaffected manner."
The Journal of the Royal Institute of British Architects
"A delight for all those who love clarity in architectural design and liter-
ature. Written in Basic English it is a model of clear and simple statement."
Decoration
"Basic English, handled by Mr. McGrath, is flexible, fluid, and alive,
Twentieth Century Houses is a literary and technical landmark."
The Architects' Journal
"There is no doubt that Twentieth Century Houses has style, and the
literary quality is very high. "
Architeciure
"He makes it read like the best and most flexible sort of English prose."
Books of the Month
"The whole text is in Basic English with an explanatory article and
vocabulary contributed by Mr. C. K. Ogden, The language runs simply but
not haltingly."
The Cambridge Review
"An interesting thing about the book is that it is written in Basic English.
This simplicity, which has been achieved without any loss of vigour, will
probably make the text as easily understood (in Japan) as the photographs
are."
The Japan Chronicle
"The author states his convictions in clear, logical prose which one discovers
at the end, to one's surprise, has been written throughout in Basic English
for international purposes."
The Manchester Guardian

19


THE BASIC WAY TO ENGLISH

Under the Direction of
C. K. OGDEN
Director of the Orthological Institute

with the help of

DR. W. B. MUMFORD
Colonial Adviser, University of London,
Institute of Education
E. H. CARTER
FormerIy H.M. Inspector
The Board of Education,
Whitehall
H. V. HAMPTON
Principal, Training College,
Bombay, India
HARVEY WILLIAMS
Lecturer in English,
Etyptian University, Cairo
PROFESSOR R. D. JAMESON
National Tsing Hua University,
Peiping, China
HARLEY V. USILL
General Editor,
"The Year Book of Education"
(Evans Brothers, Ltd. Four Learners' Books, 6d. a copy;
four Teaching Books, 1/- a copy).

These step-by-step language books have been designed in answer
to the request from different countries for simple school material.
Working quickly with these books, the learner will get control of
Basic English in six months; working slowly, in two years of a
school programme. When he has been through them all, he will be
able to do all his talking in English and to have all his teaching
ondy in English.

The material of these books is of general interest, and some of the
pictures are of Africa, some of Asia, and some of Europe.

Three READING BOOKS, covering the substance of Books I
and II, Book III, and Book IV, are with the printers.

A SECOND STAGE, which will take the learner on from Basic
to complete English, is being produced under the direction of
Dr. W. B. Mumford.

20


THE BASIC READlNG BOOKS

BY L. W. LOCKHART

(Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd. Book One 9d., Book Two 10d.,
Book Three 10d.)

All the stories in these books keep inside the limits of the 850
words of Basic English. Every. word in the list is common and
simple, and all taken together have a range equal to that of about
20,000. This makes it possible to get away from baby-talk without
overstretching the learner's powers. The use of the same words
again and again gives him a chance to become certain of himself,
but the words say so much that he is not conscious of being limited.

Boys and girls who have gone through these books will be
interested enough in reading to take trouble with harder material.
Further—and this point is important—they will have got control of
the words which will give them most help in learning new words.
Basic, with its power of clear and simple statement, is a safe instru-
ment for pinning words down. These books are the first step to its
wider use in schools for reading material of every sort.

In building up a healthy outlook nothing is of more value than
the development of an interest in the things round about us. The
stories in the first two books are about the everyday doings of quite
unimportant persons. Facts about such things as clouds, the building
of a tree-house, or how to make a fire out of doors are given in the
framework of normal experience, and an attempt is made to put
common events in an interesting light.

The third Book takes the reader on to simple questions of general
knowledge. Starting with things which men do, it goes on to give
an account of facts about plants and animals and the earth itself.
The pictures in this book give training in learning through the eye.
There. are questions at the end of every story in all three Books.
These are about the details of the stories, and are for testing the
reader's attention.

Book One is at the level of the eight-year-old. Book Three,
though simple enough for quite young readers, might well be
used for older learners who are making a start with Basic or have
been learning English slowly.

21


OUR CHANGlNG TIMES

(Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1/-)

This Library will give those who are learning Basic, or who are
taking their first step with Basic or any other limited word list, a
wide range of reading material of more general interest than the
stories commonly offered to the young--which are of very little
profit to those desiring new knowledge. The first thirty of these
books will be printed at the rate of ten a year, and will be a guide
to the inventions by which our way of living has been changed, the
discoveries by which the earth has been made to seem smaller, and
the sciences by which the organization of society and the arts of
peace have been made possible.
Books in this Library:
1. Across the Isthmus of Panama
2. Electric Power at Work
3. Fireside Stories
4. Schoolboys of Early Times—I
5. Schoolboys of Early Times—II
6. Great Discoveries
7. The First Virginians
8. The White Man comes to New York
9. How Men have kept their Records
10. Wires Round the Earth
11. To Far Cathay
12. All about Motion Pictures
With the Printers:
13. Late Night Special
14. The Post Bag
15. Wings Away
Ready before the end of the year :
The Thunder Bird
Airship Flight
The Potter's Wheel
Ships of Yesterday
Down the Ships' Ways

22


A LITTLE ABOUT

GEOGRAPHY

BY

CLAUDE FLIGHT

AND

EDITH LAWRENCE

(Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 3s. 6d.)
This is the flrst of four books by two experts in the art of
cutting pictures from the material named linoleum. Because
this material is commonly used as a floor-covering, such
pictures may be made very cheaply by everyone, and
'Lino-Cuts' are now part of the art-training in a great
number of schools in different countries.

Opposite every division of the book is a picture designed
to make the story interesting to the young reader. There are
64 pages, of which 2 1 are given to pictures and maps. The
page is l2 x 10 1/2 inches, so that the print may be of a size
which will give no trouble to the eyes, and coloured inks have
been used as a further attraction. This book is in dark blue.

Ready in September, 1938:
A Little about History (3s. 6d.)
A Little about Art (3s. 6d.)

Later:
A Little about Farming (3s. 6d.)

23


The New Testament is almost ready for the printer.
Further details will be given in "The Basic News," October, 1938.

THE BASIC BIBLE

THE COMPLETE OLD AND NEW
TESTAMENTS IN BASIC ENGLISH

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

S. H. HOOKE, M.A., B.D., F.S.A.
Samuel Davidson Professor of Old Testament Studies
in the University of London

WITH THE SUPPORT OF

THE VERY REV. W. R. MATTHEWS, K.C.V.O., D.D., D.Lit.
Dean of St. Paul's.

THE RIGHT REV. E. W. BARNES, F.R.S., Sc.D., D.D., LL.D.
Bishop of Birmingham.

THE RIGHT REV. MARTIN LINTON-SMITH, D.D., F.S.A.
Bishop of Rochester.

THE REV. EDWlN SMITH, D.D.
Editorial Superintendent of the British a'id Foreign Bible Society
Late President of the Royal Anthropological Institute, etc.

THE REV. PREBENDARY W. O. E. OESTERLEY, D.D., Litt.D.
Emeritus Professor of Hebrew at King's College, University of London
Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of London.

THE REV. T. H. ROBlNSON, D.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University College, Cardiff.

I. A. RICHARDS, Litt.D.
Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge Writer of "Principles of Literary Criticism," etc.

EVANS BROS. LTD.
MONTAGUE HOUSE, RUSSELL SQUARE, LONDON


Further details will be given in "The Basic News," October, 1938

THE GENERAL
BASIC ENGLISH
DICTIONARY

GIVING THE SENSES
OF 25,000 WORDS IN BASIC ENGLISH
WITH PICTURES

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF

C. K. OGDEN, M.A.
Writer of "Basic English," etc.

WITH THE SUPPORT OF

PROFESSOR A. LLOYD-JAMES
University of London
Linguistic Adviser to the B.B.C.

DR. I. A. RICHARDS
Magdalene College' Cambridge
Writer of "Principles of Literary Criticism."

S. L. SALZEDO
Interpreter in the Supreme Court of Judicature, London.

AND A COMMITTEE OF THE ORTHOLOGICAL
INSTITUTE

EVANS BROS. LTD.
MONTAGUE HOUSE, RUSSELL SQUARE, LONDON


BASIC BY PICTURE-STAMPS

Some ten years back, while Basic was still in the early stages, it
seemed to us that there might be a use for stamps among the new
forms of picture-teaching which would have to be tested by the
Orthological Institute. In those days the number of picture-stamps
was small, and the organization of air-posts was limited to two or
three countries which made little use of the special stamps now
printed for long distance flights. Even so, we were able to put
together more than a hundred pictures, to which additions have
been made month by month.

More than 800 examples, making clear the senses and uses of almost
all the Basic words, have now been listed, and we have the necessary
authority from the Post Office to make use of them for teaching
purposes: Those who are not in touch with the science and art of
Philately will probably be surprised at the range of interests covered.
The marketing of stamps has become a great industry. As much as
£300,000 has been given for one American group which the general
public has never seen on a letter-cover; there are stamps valued at
more than £10,000; and Kings and Presidents are among the experts
whose names are on the lips of every schoolboy.

The fact that mil]ions of boys and girls have been putting their
pocket-money into these little bits of paper for more than fifty
years, and get from them their first knowledge of history and
geography, gives us a good start. No one will be able to say that
the experience of teachers, which so frequently gives the death-blow
to new ideas, is against the use of designs less than an inch square,
because of some theory about eye adjustments in ten-year-olds. It
may not be common knowledge that in Costa Rica newspapers
and advertisement material go post free, but long before San José is
even a name on the map, the faces and pictures on the stamps of
Costa Rica are old friends in the houses of the European poor, who
get them and the books in which they may be fixed, fro.m any
five-and-ten-cent store.

In addition, the pictures in question, from Costa Rica and
Dahomey, from Ecuador and Finland, from Guatemala and Haiti,
are generally well designed--much better than any of the pictures
in language books for schools. They are works of art, representative
of important events in the history of nations; and it is strange that
they have never been given attention by those who make the
teaching of language their business.

Further details of Basic by Picture-Stamps will be given in No. 7
of The Basic News.

26


THE STORY OF THE LETTERS AND NUMBERS

Before the end of 1938 a new book on the Letters and Numbers
in use now and in the past will be ready for the public. There will
be 39 full-page pictures giving 60 A-B-Cs, together with Egyptian,
'Cuneiform' or V-mark writing, and Chinese. There are almost
4000 different letters in the work. Two of the pictures give the
development of our number forms, and one is a language map.

All our science and all our records are based on writing and num-
bering, so this is an important addition to the Basic Science Library.
More is said about the sounds of the letters than in most books on
this question, and a full account is given of the very complex
outlines of the A-B-Cs of the East, in most of which one letter is
used for a group of 2 to 6 or more of our letters. Though it has not
been possible to give all the complex letters of the 300-400 ways of
writing the A-B-C, there is such a great number of examples and
the account is so detailed that it will not be hard for anyone who will
take a little trouble with them to make out the true sounds.

The writings of Europe, other than Russian and Greek, have not
been put in, because these have been fully covered in other works.
This has made it possible to say something about Korean, Siamese,
and other languages on which there is very little in print. The Korean
language is of great interest; it has a true A-B-C of open and stopped
sounds, but the letters are put together so that every group seems
like a Chinese picture word.

The latest discoveries about the early history of our A-B-C are
covered by an account of the letters from Sinai, Ras Shamra, and
Lachish. The writer has even gone so far as to give the name of
the man who may have made the invention of true letters.

It is hoped that this work will be of use not only to learners of
out-of-the-way languages but, in addition, to anyone who has
pictures, money, pots, and stamps with strange writing on them.
To make the material of greater value to those interested in such
side-lines of art, ornament, or industry, we have put in, where
possible, examples of the stamps on which the different forms of
writing are to be seen.

Mr. C. L, T. Griffith, who has given more than two years to this
undertaking—not the least part of which was the designing and copy-
ing of the pictures by hand—is an expert in more than one field. In
addition to his special knowledge of languages, mathematics, and
science, he has had a wide experience of the ways of man in most
parts of the earth—in Burma, India, Africa, America, and Australia.
It is surprising in these days, when the need for men of learning
with a power of teaching others is so great, that he has not been
given a position of authority in some University; but the fact that
he is still a free man has been a happy chance for Basic.

27


JANUS

Janus, who had two faces, was able to see in opposite directions
at the same time.

The Basic Janus (2/6) sees forward into the future and back to the
past, for example—

Future: "You w'ill keep these,"
Past: "You kept these."

The Present (the 12 chief operations as they are listed in the
Basic 850) is on the back card—at the top of the opposite page.

The purpose of the apparatus is to make it clear why a past form
like took is not listed as a separate word in the Basic system and to
give at the same time, in one bird's-eye view, the most important
form changes in those Basic words whose form is regularly changed
as part of the structure of the language.

IN OTHER LANGUAGES

The list of Basic books printed in other countries is increasing
month by month, and those who are interested getting Basic material
which has been put into different languages may do so by writing to
our representatives in the countries- in question, whose names are
given on the inside front cover.

There is a great Basic-Chinese Wall-map made by the Orthological
Institute of China, Records by Dr. Y. R. Chao, and a wide range of
books in Chinese. The prices of books now in print in Japan are:
ABC, 150 yen; New Guide, 1 yen; Basic By Examples, 85 sen, Short
Guide
, 45 sen; Basic for Business, 250 yen; Century Readers (Books
I and II), 150 yen. The Strange House, Japan and some English
Writers
, and Robinson Crusoe are 50 sen a copy, and there is now a
Basic Japanese by Professor Kochi Doi. The Japanese Basic Diction-
ary
, by Mr. Daniels, will not be ready till 1939.

The price of the Times of India Short Guide (for use in India only)
is I rupee; and Dr. Purcell's Basic English for Malaya is 1 dollar
(Singapore); of Dr. Vocodlo's Basic Key for Czech learners (Brno),
about l/6, of Mrs. Taylor's Danish outline Basic Engelsk (Gyldendal,
Copenhagen), about 2/-. A number of Basic books have been produced
in the U.S.S.R,, together with Basic Records. The ABC may be had
in Latvian, by Dr. Rolavs, and in Swedish, and the German and
French form of this
and Basic Step by Step are now being printed in
London. Teaching in African languages is given in Basic by The
African Defender
(Johannesburg).

Details of these and other developments, with the names of book -
stores which keep the Basic books in out-of-the-way parts, are given
from time to time in The Basic News.

28


29


THE BASIS AND ESSENTIALS OF

FRENCH (3/6)
"An astonishing little book, priceless to the beginner. Introducing
a method of learning French which, though absolutely sound and
authoritative, is revolutionary in its simplicity."—Everyman.

GERMAN (3/6)
"The book the language teacher has longed for, but has almost
despaired of ever seeing. . . . A notable addition to the array of
German text-books."—The London Teacher.
"It could hardly be bettered."—Times Literary Supplement.

SPANISH (3/6)
"The most compact outline of Spanish in existence."
The Teachers' World.

RUSSIAN (5/-)
"A carefully planned primer. The authors have worked hard at
condensing the grammatical rules, after which they provide a
vocabulary of several thousand words, with some 1,600 of the more
'essential' words printed in distinctive type. Much to be com-
mended." —Times.
"The clear typography assists a very good book."
Times Literary Supplement.

ITALIAN (3/6)
Readers: German (3/-), Spanish (216), Russian (4/-)
The French and Italian Readers will be ready early in 1939

Under the Direction of Charles Duff.
Based on Basic English.

The best guide to the chief languages of the earth.
Portuguese, Hindustani, and Chinese are on the way.
The books are all printed in Mr. Eric Gill's noted 'Sans Serif'
letters which makes memory work much simpler.

"Mr. Duff's language books must become famous. It is hard to see
how they can be made better or where one can find more in such
convenient brevity."—The Morning Post.

"These books may be strongly recommended to adult students or
those working without a teacher ; they would be extremely useful
for evening classes, continuation schools, and all those seeking to
acquire a knowledge of foreign languages for special purposes."
Times Literary Supplement.

THOMAS NELSON & SONS, LTD.
LONDON, EDINBURGH, PARlS, TORONTO, NEW YORK


BASIC ENGLISH

Basic English is a System in which 850 English words will do the
work of 20,000, and so give to everyone a second or international language
which will take as little of the learner's time as possible.

Basic English
A general account, with Word-list and Rules.
The Basic Words
A full account of the 850, with all special uses.
The ABC of Basic English
A simple account, step by step, for learners and teachers.
Basic Step by Step
The 850 words in 30 groups, for teaching, with Notes.
The Basic Dictionary
Putting into Basic the 7,500 words most used in Normal English.
Debabelization
The argumcnt for Basic as the international language of the future; with
over 100 pages of current opinion on the position of English.
Brighter Basic
For young persons of taste and feeling. This is not a book for teachers.
Basic for Business
A complete system for international trade, with examples of business letters,
Basic English Applied: Science
Taking the learner to a stage where international words are ready to hand.
Basic for Economics
Covering theory of economics; with examples from representative writers.
Basic for Geology. By P. M. Rossiter.
The Sounds and Forms of Basic English. By J. Rantz.

EXAMPLES
Basic by Examples. Every Basic Word with its different uses.
Everyday Basic. Simple examples for all purposes.
The Gold Insect. Poe's "Gold Bug" put into Basic English.
Gulliver in Lilliput. The first of Gulliver's journeys.
Robinson Crusoe. His story in Basic.
Wise Words of an Early American. Benjamin Franklin.
Stories from France. From the prose of Perrault.
Stories from China. By T. K. Ch'u.
The Two Friends. Tourgenieff's moving story.
Stories for the Young. And for the not so young. By Tolstoi.
Keäwe's Bottle. Stevenson's "The Bottle Imp" in Basic.
Julius Caesar. From North's Plutarch (with "Brutus").
Japanese Stories. From Lafcadio Hearn.
The Three Signs. Stories by Hawthorne, Irving, and Poe.
That Night. Tumura's "Sono Yo" in Basic.
The Organization of Peace. By Maxwell Garnett.
International Talks. By Wickham Steed; with Basic parallel.
Basic by Isotype. With pictures by Dr. Neurath.
From Pictures to Letters. First steps in writing. By Ellen Walpole.
Lamb's Stories from Shakespeare. A Basic selection.
Stories from Hans Andersen. Put into Basic by C. Hughes Hartmann.
Stories from the Bible. A selection from the coming Basic Bible.
The Basic St. Mark. The first complete unit.
The Song of Songs. Put into Basic by Ma Than É; with Ecclesiastes.
The Meno. Plato's discussion of Knowledge, in Basic.
The Chemical History of a Candle. Faraday in Basic.
Science and Well-Being. A selection ftom J. B. S. Haldane.
The Outlook of Science. A further selection from Prof. Haldane.
A Basic Astronomy. By S. L. Salzedo.
Black Beauty. Anna Sewell's story. For school use.
Death in High Society. Stories by Inez Holden.
Carl and Anna. Leonhard Frank's story. Not for school use.

All 2/6 (70 cents) a copy

THE ORTHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
10, KING'S PARADE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND


BASIC ENGLISH

SCHOOL BOOKS

The Basic Way to English
Books I-IV
For young learners, with pictures.
Sixpence a book (Evans Bros.).
Teachers' Books 1-IV, 1/- a book.

The Basic Reading Books
Book I., 9d.
Book II., 10d.
Book III., 10d.
By L. W. Lockhart.
Books I and II have coloured pictures.
(Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, London and
New York).

General History
By E. H. Carter and C. K. Ogden.
100,000 words in Basic (Nelson, 2/6).

"OUR CHANGINC TIMES"
Electric Power at Work
Fireside Stories
Across the Isthmus of Panama
Schoolboys of Early Times
, Part I
Schoolboys of Early Times, Part II
The First Virginians
The White Man.
Comes to New York
Great Discoveries
How Men have kept their Records
To Far Cathay
AIl about Motion Pictures
Wires round the Earth,
1/- a copy. (Nelson).

A Basic Phonetic Reader (3/6).
By Professor Lloyd James. (Nelson) .


GENERAL

Arms and the Man
By Bernard Shaw.
Put into Basic by L. W. Lockhart (2/-).

Living Things
By J. W. N. Sullivan (Nelson 1/9 ).

Twentieth Century Houses
By Raymond McGrath.
100,000 words in Basic (Faber, 21/-).

A Little about Geography (3/6)
A Little about History (3/6)
A Little about Art (3/6)
By Claude Flight and E. Lawrence
(Pitman).

The ABC of Basic English
in Japanese
(2/6) in Swedish (2/6)
in French (2/6) in German (2/6)

The Basis and Essentials
of French
(3/6), of German (3/6),
of Spanish (3/6), of Italian (3/6),
of Russian (5/-).
Readers: German (3/-), Spanish
(2/6), Russian (4/-).
Under the Direction of Charles Duff.
The best guide to the chief languages of
the earth. Based on Basic English.

The System of Basic English
By C. K. Ogden.
Second printing, 1937; 322 pagcs.
(Harcourt, Brace, Ncw York; $2.50).

African Belief
By Edwin Smith.
In Basic. (United Society for Christian
Literature, 416) .

The Bible: What it is and what is
in it

By E. Evans and Prof. T. H. Robinson.
150,000 words in Basic (S.P.C.K., 2/6).

A Short Guide to Basic English, 1/-
An outline of the system, in Basic, for the
learner and the general reader.

Basic English and Grammatical
Reform
, 1/-
An account of the structure and theory
of Basic, for experts.

Basic Motion Pictures, 1/-
Giving the 12 chief operations in motion.

The Basic News, 1/- a year
Four numbers every year.
Psyche, Once a year, 10/-
Vols I-XVI (1921-1936), £20.

Records by Prof. Lloyd James (4)10/-
The Word Wheel (Panopticon) 2/6
Janus (for form changes) 2/6

THE ORTHOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
10, KING'S PARADE, CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND

Printed in Great Britain by R. I. Severs, Cambridge


Operation Basic: Ryota's Basic English Station | Ryota's Top-Page